“I am a big fan of clean energy, but I am bigger fan of a robust economy.”
-Mr. Greenbacks, 2012
Subsidies to the energy industry are nothing new, they have been around for decades. Generally speaking, subsidies fall into three main categories: Direct Spending, Tax Expenditures, and Loan Guarantees. For most of the 20th century, fossil fuels have enjoyed a long run of subsidies such as tax breaks, tax credits, tax exemptions, and deferred depreciation, just to name a few. This extended period government support firmly entrenched fossil fuels as the sole providers of energy by making renewable energy prohibitively expensive by comparison. The roles reversed in 2009 with the passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act that eliminated some subsidies for fossil fuels and expanded subsidies for renewables. However, as you can see below, the level of support to fossil fuels is still 6x greater than renewables.
- The IEA estimates that in 2010 worldwide fossil fuel subsidies totaled $409 billion. That number is expected to rise to over $650 billion by 2020 unless changes are made.
- By comparison, only $66 billion was spent to subsidize renewable energy.
So what is the role of subsidies? Subsidies should be used to level the financial barriers for new and emerging technologies in order to compete in the marketplace. Once these technologies are mature enough to stand alone, the subsidy should be removed in order to let the market forces take over and determine a true price for the product. The support should then go on to fund another technology that could possibly compete with the first one in order to advance a competitive marketplace. By keeping the subsidy in place for too long, one can create artificial demand that encourages waste and can quickly drain government coffers. This could apply to any industry, but right now we are focused on the energy industry.
So should we remove all subsidies to the energy industry? No! The renewable energy industry has seen more ups and downs than the Cyclone on Coney Island. Most of these Boom and Bust cycles have been created through a rush of investment in good times (subsidy ON!) followed by a lack of capital (subsidy OFF!) when the music stops. A clear and definite subsidy policy should be implemented in order to remove the uncertainty faced by investors of clean energy projects.
Subsidies to Renewable Energy
I am a big fan of clean energy, but I am bigger fan of a robust economy. In today’s economic climate, governments must be extremely careful how they spend their resources. The current policies offering subsidies to the renewable energy industry have done a wonderful job of creating widespread deployment of clean energy projects. However, many of these projects are only profitable because of the subsidy. Current policies should be revamped in order to drive innovation and cost reductions so that renewables such as wind and solar can compete with cheap natural gas WITHOUT the subsidy.
In order to maximize the value of taxpayer dollars the following objectives should be implemented:
- Remove subsidies to the fossil fuel industry in order to establish a true market value that takes into account the negative externalities of these resources. A small fee can be added to fossil fuel transactions to help fund clean energy research.
- New subsidies should promote efficiency gains and cost reductions through the use of steadily improving, performance-based standards.
- These subsidies should target advanced technologies, decrease as the cost declines, and be temporary in order to deter ongoing support.
- The US must increase its investment in R&D as well as leverage talent from universities and the private sector in order to establish public-private partnerships and regional clusters of advanced research and manufacturing.
- Utilize the strength and size of the DOD to drive commercialization of technological advances made through ARPA-E.
Implementing these policies will go a long way toward maximizing public dollars, creating a competitive clean tech industry, and ending the addiction to fossil fuels.