Few things effect international relations more than the balance of power. Whether it be water or oil, the first societies to harness the potential of these commodities enjoy the creation of wealth and goods such as cropland in the case of water and industry in the case of oil. Eventually each sector is going to grow and the demand for the input will outgrow the supply, leading to price hikes that make that commodity even more desired. Problems exist when the source of these commodities are located outside of that nations borders. The balance of power is then transferred from the first-mover user to the upstream producer of that commodity. This is where it gets interesting. The choice then becomes whether to use soft power (such as diplomacy, aid, or economic development) to gain influence over the producer or hard power (military action, sanctions) to force them to act. Only by reducing demand for the commodity in question can the consumer nation wrestle back control from the producer nation. This could include finding a substitute, developing new technology, or learning to use that resource more efficiently. In the case of water, there is no substitute. Downstream nations must learn to make the most out of every drop that they have. This includes studying what crops to plant domestically and supplementing others through trade. New technology such as desalination plants could also help secure access to clean water, but it will take an economic toll. In the case of oil, there are several substitutes such as biofuel, natural gas, and plug-in hybrid cars, but while we further explore these technologies, squeezing the most out of every drop seems to make the most financial sense.